Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain that is a worldwide staple food. The wheat plant has long slender leaves and stems that are hollow in most varieties.
The nutritional composition of the wheat grain varies somewhat with differences in climate and soil. On average, the kernel contains 12 percent water, 70 percent carbohydrates, 12 percent protein, 2 percent fat, 1.8 percent minerals, and 2.2 percent crude fibers.
China is the world’s largest producer of wheat with 126 million metric tons followed by India with an average of 98,510,000 Tonnes annually, Russia is third in terms of wheat cultivation with an average of 85,863,132 Tonnes per annum followed by the United States and France respectively.
In terms of wheat consumption globally, Egypt, Indonesia, Turkey, China, and Nigeria are the largest consumer of the commodity. Egypt, Brazil, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Algeria, Japan, Morocco, and Mexico are the top importers of the commodity while The 3 biggest wheat exporters which are Russia, the United States, and Canada provide almost half or 45.8 percent of the overall value of exports for the nourishing cereal food. As of the time of making this video, the average value of the commodity is around 170.12 dollars per metric ton.
Top Wheat producers are:
- United States
Top Wheat importers are:
Top Wheat Exporters
- United States
Wheat is an important source of carbohydrates. Globally, it is the leading source of vegetable protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13 percent, which is relatively high compared to other major cereals but relatively low in protein quality for supplying essential amino acids. When eaten as a whole grain, wheat is a source of multiple nutrients and dietary fiber.
Most wheat used for food requires processing. The grain is cleaned and then conditioned by the addition of water so that the kernel breaks up properly. In milling, the grain is cracked and then passed through a series of rollers. As the smaller particles are sifted out, the coarser particles pass to other rollers for further reduction.
About 72 percent of the milled grain is recovered as white flour. Flour made from the whole kernel is called graham flour and becomes rancid with prolonged storage because of the germ-oil content retained. White flour, which does not contain the germ, preserves longer. Inferior and surplus kinds of wheat and various milling by-products are used for livestock feeds.
The greatest portion of the wheat flour produced is used for breadmaking. Kinds of wheat grown in dry climates are generally hard types, having a protein content of 11 to 15 percent and strong gluten which is an elastic protein. The hard type produces flour best suited for breadmaking.
The kinds of wheat in humid areas are softer, with a protein content of about 8 to 10 percent and weak gluten. The softer type of wheat produces flour suitable for cakes, crackers, cookies, pastries, and household flours. Durum wheat semolina obtained from the endosperm is used for making pasta, or alimentary pastes. In a small part of the general population, gluten which is the major part of wheat protein can trigger coeliac disease, non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, and dermatitis herpetiformis
World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. In 2017, world production of wheat was 772 million tonnes, with a forecast of 2019 production at 766 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize. Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st century. Global demand for wheat is increasing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods, whose consumption is increasing as a result of the worldwide industrialization process and the westernization of the diet.
Top wheat-producing countries:
As the world’s largest producer of wheat, China plays an important role in shaping grain market dynamics across the world. Around 126 million metric tons of wheat are produced by the country per year, on a land area of 24 million hectares. Wheat serves as one of the staple foods of the Chinese population, accounting for 40 percent of the grain consumption in this country. Wheat is cultivated extensively in the Yellow River and Huai River Valleys of China, where the crop is rotated with maize. Meanwhile, along with and around the Yangtze River Valley, it is instead more commonly rotated with rice.
India is the second-largest producer of wheat with an average of 98,510,000 Tonnes annually. Wheat is the second most important cultivated food crop in India after rice and feeds hundreds of millions of Indians daily.
It is an especially important staple food in the northern and northwestern states of the country, such as near the Pakistani border. India accounts for about 8.7 percent of the total wheat production in the world, and 13 percent of all cultivated land in India is dedicated to the cultivation of this crop.
Russia is the third-largest wheat producer in the world and was among the top five wheat exporting countries in the world with an average of 85,863,132 Tonnes per annum. Winter wheat is the primary variety of wheat grown in the country.
The crop is mostly raised in the western parts of Russia surrounding Moscow. The crop is planted between August and the first week of October and harvested between July and August the following year.
Wheat, the principal cereal grain of the United States, is grown all over the country. Around 47 million tonnes of wheat are produced in the USA, which ranks fourth in the world in terms of quantity of wheat produced, and ranking often switching in recent years between the US and Russia, currently in 3rd place.
France is the largest producer of wheat in Europe and the fifth-largest producer in the world, with this crop being cultivated throughout the country with 36,924,938 Tonnes on average per year.
Top wheat consuming countries
Globally, wheat imported during 2020 generated a total of 47.4 billion dollars in international purchases.
The overall value of imported wheat for all buying countries rose by an average of 13.7 percent since 2016 when the world’s tally for wheat purchases equaled 41.7 billion dollars.
From 2019 to 2020, the global bill paid for imported wheat accelerated by 7.5 percent.
The 5 biggest buyers of wheat are Egypt, Indonesia, Turkey, China, and Nigeria purchased a quarter or about 25.2 percent of overall wheat imports in 2020.
Among continents, Asian countries accounted for the highest dollar worth of overall wheat imported during 2020 with purchases valued at 20.3 billion dollars or 42.9percent of the global total. In second place were African importers at 27.2 percent while 17.7 percent of worldwide wheat imports were delivered to Europe.
Smaller percentages of 8.5 percent arrived in Latin America excluding Mexico but including the Caribbean, North America got 3 percent and Oceania got 0.8 percent led by New Zealand and Australia.
The fastest-growing markets for wheat since 2019 were: China up by 150.8 percent, Nigeria up by 62.3 percent, Morocco up by 48.2 percent, and Italy up by 12.1 percent.
Those countries that posted declines in their imported wheat purchases were led by: the Netherlands which was down by minus 15.8 percent, Spain down by minus 12.8 percent, Egypt down by minus 10.9 percent, and Brazil down by 9.9 percent.
Top Wheat Importing countries
Egypt was placed in the first position among the countries that made the most wheat imports in 2019, according to statistics from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.
In the last two seasons, external purchases of wheat in Egypt averaged 12.6 million tons then followed by Indonesia with an average of 11 million tons and Turkey with 7.3 million tons on average. Other countries with the most wheat imports were: Brazil, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Algeria, Japan, Morocco, and Mexico.
According to FAO, the world wheat trade including wheat flour in wheat equivalent in the 2020 to 2021 season July to June is likely to reach a record level of 177.5 million tonnes, 1.4 percent more than in 2019 to 2020.
The increase in imports into Europe, which partly reflects the inclusion of trade flows between the EU 27 and the UK from 2020 to 2021, explains most of the apparent growth in world trade in this basic grain.
FAO also believes that higher demand for imports from various countries in Asia and North Africa will contribute to the expansion.
Concerns about the possible extension of wheat export restrictions mostly abated and the initial outlook for 2020 to 2021 assumes that there are no new Covid 19 related obstacles affecting trade flows.
In Europe, total wheat imports from 2020 to 21 are forecast to reach almost 9 million tonnes, 2.5 million tonnes more than in 2019 to 2020.
However, all this expansion is associated with higher imports from the EU 27, 1 million tonnes more than in 2019 to 2020 due to a likely decrease in total production this year, and expected wheat imports of 2 million tonnes. tonnes by the UK, which as of 2020 to 2021 is excluded from total EU imports and therefore includes purchases from EU countries.
Top Wheat Exporting countries
Worldwide wheat exports by country totaled an estimated 44.8 billion dollars in 2020, up by 22.8 percent for international wheat sales since 2016 when global wheat exports were valued at 36.5 billion dollars.
Year over year, the value of global wheat exports increased by 10.7 percent from 2019 to 2020.
The 3 biggest wheat exporters which are Russia, the United States, and Canada provide almost half or 45.8 percent of the overall value of exports for the nourishing cereal food.
From a continental perspective, European countries supplied over half of the worldwide wheat exports during 2020 with shipments amounting to 25.5 billion dollars or 56.9 percent of total global sales. Home to two leading wheat shipping neighbors which are Canada and United States, North American exporters furnished 28.3 percent worth of wheat sold on international markets.
Oceania was responsible for 6 percent of wheat exports by value, ahead of Latin America excluding Mexico but including the Caribbean at 5.3 percent. Smaller percentages came from Asia with 3.3 percent and Africa with 0.2 percent.
Among the top exporters, the fastest-growing wheat suppliers from 2019 to 2020 were: Poland which was up by 142.4 percent, Germany up by 66.4 percent, Lithuania up by 36 percent, and Latvia up by 32.6 percent.
Those countries that posted declines in their exported wheat sales were: Bulgaria which was down by minus 26.2 percent, Romania was down by minus 25.4 percent, Argentina was down by minus 13.6 percent, and Ukraine was down by minus 1.7%.
As of the time of making this video, the average value of the commodity is around 170.12 dollars per metric ton. Please bear in mind that these prices are subject to fluctuations depending on the demand and supply.
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Wheat is a cereal grain that is a worldwide staple food. Egypt, Indonesia, Turkey, China, and Nigeria are the largest consumer of the commodity. Russia is the third-largest wheat producer in the world with an average of 85,863,132 Tonnes per annum.
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