Rubber is an elastic substance obtained from the exudations of certain tropical plants or derived from petroleum and natural gas. Rubber obtained from tropical plants is known as natural rubber while rubber obtained from petroleum and natural gas is known as synthetic rubber. Natural rubber continues to hold an important place in the market today; its resistance to heat buildup makes it valuable for tires used on racing cars, trucks, buses, and airplanes. The 5 biggest importers are China, Malaysia, United States, Japan, and Vietnam. The biggest 5 exporters are Thailand, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Malaysia, and Vietnam while the top 5 exporters are Thailand, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Malaysia, and Vietnam.
Top Rubber Importing And Exporting Countries
Rubber is a widely used material, in both naturally and synthetically sourced forms. Companies use it in the manufacturing of tires and tubes, rubber gloves, latex condoms, erasers, adhesives and coatings, nozzles, elastic material in clothing, and more. Accordingly, rubber is an important commodity due to its numerous uses in everyday items.
The main chemical constituents of rubber are elastomers, or elastic polymers, large chainlike molecules that can be stretched to great lengths and yet recover their original shape. The first common elastomer was polyisoprene, from which natural rubber is made. Formed in a living organism, natural rubber consists of solids suspended in a milky fluid, called latex, that circulates in the inner portions of the bark of many tropical and subtropical trees and shrubs, but predominantly Hevea brasiliensis, a tall softwood tree originating in Brazil. Natural rubber was first scientifically described by Charles-Marie de La Condamine and François Fresneau of France following an expedition to South America in 1735. The English chemist Joseph Priestley gave it the name rubber in 1770 when he found it could be used to rub out pencil marks. Its major commercial success came only after the vulcanization process was invented by Charles Goodyear in 1839.
Natural rubber continues to hold an important place in the market today; its resistance to heat buildup makes it valuable for tires used on racing cars, trucks, buses, and airplanes. Nevertheless, it constitutes less than half of the rubber produced commercially; the rest is rubber produced synthetically using chemical processes that were partly known in the 19th century but were not applied commercially until the second half of the 20th century, after World War II. Among the most important synthetic rubbers are butadiene rubber, styrene-butadiene rubber, neoprene, polysulfide rubbers also known as thiokols, butyl rubber, and silicones. Synthetic rubbers, like natural rubbers, can be toughened by vulcanization and improved and modified for special purposes by reinforcement with other materials.
Natural rubber or India rubber is a polymer of isoprene, an organic compound. Minor impurities of other organic compounds are also found. A number of nations in Southeast Asia and India are the top producers of natural rubber in the world. The rubber products of commercial significance are produced by processing the latex collected from the rubber tree. The material is useful for its high resilience, waterproof properties, and large stretch ratio.
The Sources Of Rubber:
Natural rubber comes from various sources, the most common being the Pará rubber tree also known as Hevea brasiliensis. It grows well under cultivation and yields latex for several years. The vines in the genus Landolphia yield the Congo rubber. These vines cannot be grown in cultivation and this led to large scale exploitation of the wild plants in Congo. Latex is also present in dandelion milk which can be used to produce rubber. Several other trees and plants have also been used for the production of rubber.
Cultivation Of Rubber Trees:
Rubber trees have an economic life period of around 32 years in plantations. The trees demand well drained and well weathered soils. Lateritic type, alluvial, sedimentary types, and nonlateritic red soils are best for the growth of these trees. An evenly distributed rainfall with at least 100 rainy days a year and a temperature range of about 20 to 34 centigrade are optimum conditions for the growth of the Hevea rubber tree. A humidity of around 80 percent, 2000 hours of sunshine, and the absence of strong winds are also necessary for best results.
Production Of Rubber:
In 2013, nearly 28 million tons of rubber were produced in the world and natural rubber accounted for 44 percent of this production. The price of natural rubber is thus influenced by the global crude oil price since synthetic rubber is derived from petroleum. In 2013, Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia together accounted for 72 percent of the natural rubber produced in the world. Although the Hevea tree is native to South America, cultivation there is limited due to the high prevalence of leaf blight diseases and other natural predators.
The Leading Natural Rubber Producing Countries In The World
Thailand produced 4.37 million metric tons of natural rubber in 2020, making it the leading producer of natural rubber worldwide. This was followed by Indonesia, which produced 3.04 million metric tons. Both countries experienced production declines in 2020 as a result of the COVID 19 pandemic.
Despite being the largest producers of this commodity, Thailand and Indonesia consumed less than one million metric tons of natural rubber in 2020. In comparison, China consumed 5.4 million metric tons, making it the world’s largest consumer of natural rubber by far.
Natural rubber, also known as caoutchouc, India rubber, and latex, is produced from the rubber tree. China is by far the largest consumer of natural rubber worldwide.
Top Rubber Consuming Countries:
Thailand ranks number one with an average annual production valued at 4,305,069 metric tonnes. Indonesia follows Thailand with an average net production of about 3,107,544 metric tonnes. Viet Nam is the third largest producer of Rubber in the world with 946,865 metric tonnes while India produces about 900,000 metric tonnes which makes it the fourth largest producer of the commodity and China is the world’s fifth largest Rubber producing nation with 864,806 metric tonnes.
Thailand Natural Rubber Net Production jumped by 1.4 percent year on year. In 2019, the country was ranked number 1 among other countries in Natural Rubber Net Production at 5,588,756.44 dollars.
Top Rubber consuming countries
China consumed the most natural rubber worldwide in 2020, at 4.7 million metric tons. This was followed by India and the United States, which consumed one million metric tons and 807,000 metric tons of natural rubber that year, respectively. The outbreak of COVID 19 in 2020 reduced the consumption of natural rubber in many countries worldwide. Of the leading natural rubber consumers shown, only Malaysia experienced an increase in consumption in 2020. The global consumption of natural rubber is considerable as it reached a peak of 13.8 million metric tons in 2018.
China is by far the largest consumer of natural rubber worldwide, consuming a peak of 5.5 million metric tons in 2019. China uses natural rubber for a variety of manufacturing uses, including automobile and tire manufacturing, in particular. Despite China consuming large quantities of natural rubber, its production of natural rubber is far less than countries such as Thailand and Indonesia.
International purchases of imported natural rubber were worth a total of 12.5 billion dollars in 2020.
Overall, globally imported natural rubber by all buyer countries declined by an average of minus 1.6 percent since 2016 when natural rubber purchases cost 12.7 billion dollars. From 2019 to 2020, natural rubber imports depreciated by minus 10.8 percent.
The 5 biggest importers are China, Malaysia, United States, Japan, and Vietnam as these five countries generated 59.2 percent of worldwide imports of natural rubber. That percentage indicates a highly concentrated cohort of natural rubber suppliers.
From a continental perspective, buyers in Asian countries purchased the highest dollar worth of imported natural rubber during 2020 with purchases amounting to 7.96 billion dollars or 63.9 percent of the global total. In second place were European importers at 18.9 percent while 13.2 percent of worldwide natural rubber imports were delivered to North America.
Smaller percentages went to importers in Latin America valued at 2.9 percent excluding Mexico but including the Caribbean, Africa got 1 percent, and Oceania got 0.1 percent led by Australia and New Zealand.
Here are the 5 countries that imported the highest dollar value worth of natural rubber during 2020: China with an import value of 3.1 billion dollars and 24.7 percent of total natural rubber imports.
Malaysia is next with 1.5 billion dollars which accounts for 11.7 percent, also the United States followed with 1.4 billion dollars which accounts for 10.9 percent. Japan is the fourth highest importer of rubber with importation valued at 840.7 million dollars which accounts for 6.7 percent and Vietnam is the fifth largest importer of the commodity with 644.1 million dollars accounting for 5.2 percent of total global rubber importation. Other top importers are India, South Korea, Germany, Turkey, Spain, Brazil, Italy, France, Russia, and Canada.
Among these countries, the sole growing markets for natural rubber since 2019 were Vietnam which was up by 75.9 percent, and Malaysia which was up by 10.1 percent.
Those countries that posted declines in their imported natural rubber purchases were led by: France which was down by minus 30 percent, Canada down by minus 29.1 percent, India down by minus 26 percent and Brazil which was down by minus 25.8 percent.
By value, the mentioned top importing countries purchased 82.2 percent of all natural rubber imported in 2020
Global sales from natural rubber exports by country totaled 11.5 billion dollars in 2020.
That dollar amount reflects an average minus 2.9 percent drop in value since 2016 when natural rubber shipments were worth 11.8 billion dollars. Year over year, exported natural rubber decreased by minus 8.7 percent from 2019 to 2020.
The biggest 5 exporters are Thailand, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Malaysia, and Vietnam these 5 countries accounted for 81.5 percent of the worldwide value of natural rubber shipped in 2020.
Among continents, Asian countries exported 9.1 billion dollars or 79 percent of international natural rubber sales. African exporters supplied 14.7 percent worth of the global total trailed by European suppliers at 4.4 percent.
Accounting for a tinier percentage of exported natural rubber were shippers in Latin America with 1.4 percent excluding Mexico but including the Caribbean, North America with 0.5 percent, and Oceania with 0.1 percent led by Papua New Guinea and Australia.
Below are the 5 countries that exported the highest dollar value worth of natural rubber during 2020.
Thailand as the highest exporter of rubber globally raked in a whopping 3.5 billion dollars and was responsible for 30.3 percent of exported natural rubber. Indonesia follows with 3 billion dollars accounting for 26.2 percent. Ivory Coast is next with 1.3 billion dollars which accounted for 11.6 percent. Malaysia raked in 782.3 million dollars which accounted for 6.8 percent of total global rubber export and Vietnam is the fifth largest exporter with 755.7 million dollars accounting for 6.6 percent.
Other top exporters of rubber include Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Guatemala, Belgium, Liberia: $115 million, Philippines, Ghana, Singapore, and France.
By value, the listed top rubber exporting countries shipped 94.8 percent of globally exported natural rubber.
Among the top exporters, the fastest growing natural rubber exporters from 2019 to 2020 were: Ghana up with 47.9 percent, Ivory Coast up with 46.5 percent, Philippines up with 27.2 percent, and Cambodia up with 24.5 percent.
Those countries that posted declines in their exported natural rubber sales were led by: Belgium which was down by minus 37.7 percent, Vietnam was down by 24.8 percent, Liberia was down by 20.4 percent, Thailand was down by 15.9 percent and Indonesia was down by 14.6 percent.
As of March 2021, the price of rubber was 2.37 U.S. dollars per kilogram. The average annual price of natural rubber at the Singapore Commodity Exchange which is one of the key global commodity exchanges for rubber reached a high of 4.82 U.S. dollars per kilogram in 2011. Since then the price has decreased, and in 2020 the average price was 1.73 U.S. dollars per kilogram.
WATCH FULL VIDEO BELOW: RUBBER TOP IMPORT & EXPORT COUNTRIES (RUBBER TOP PRODUCING COUNTRIES RUBBER GLOBAL MARKET)
If you are new to Big Man Business, please subscribe to our YouTube Channel for more business expert contents
China consumed the most natural rubber worldwide in 2020, at 4.7 million metric tons. The 5 biggest importers are China, Malaysia, United States, Japan, and Vietnam. The biggest exporters are Thailand, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Malaysian, and Vietnamese.
top rubber importing countries
top 10 rubber producing countries 2022
top rubber exporting countries
rubber production in world 2022
largest importer of rubber in the world 2021