The orange is the fruit of various citrus species in the family Rutaceae it primarily refers to Citrus and Sinensis. Orange originated in a region encompassing Southern China, Northeast India, and Myanmar and the earliest mention of the sweet orange was in Chinese literature in 314 BC.
The biggest importers of oranges are :
The 5 biggest exporters of oranges in 2020 are:
- South Africa
- United States
Top Orange Producing Countries:
Brazil is the leading orange producer in the world producing about 30 percent of the world’s output. 94 percent of the country’s orange production is concentrated in the state of Sao Paulo. Brazil is also the leading exporter of orange fruits and orange juice.
The US is the second-largest orange producer in the world accounting for about 10 percent of the world’s production. The state of Florida is the orange growing state accounting for 70 percent of the country’s production. Over 90 percent of the oranges produced in the US go to Juice making.
In China, the improved orange cultivars and expansion of orange farms have seen the country rise to the third largest orange producer in the world. China produced about 14.4 million tons of orange accounting for 8 percent of the world production in 2013. These top three countries are expected to continue to expand their production but at a slower rate.
Based on a comparison of 154 countries in 2013, Belize ranked the highest in orange and mandarine consumption per capita with 90.8 kg followed by Luxembourg and the Bahamas. On the other end of the scale were Nigeria, Malawi, and Sierra Leone respectively.
Average orange and mandarine consumption per capita reached 12.9 kg in 2013 in the World according to Faostat. This is 1.55 percent more than in the previous year and 11.3 percent more than 10 years ago.
Historically, average orange and mandarine consumption per capita reached an all-time high of 13.3 kg in 2011 and an all-time low of 5.54 kg in 1963. The average annual growth amounted to 1.63 percent since 1961.
Oranges Imports by Country
Global purchases of imported oranges were worth a total of 6.01 billion Dollars in 2020.
Overall the value of oranges imported in 2020 increased by an average of 16.5 percent for all importing countries since 2015 when international purchases of oranges were valued at 5.2 billion dollars. From 2019 to 2020, imported oranges appreciated by 13.1 percent.
The biggest importers of oranges are Germany, France, the Netherlands, China, and Russia. Collectively, that cohort of suppliers accounted for over a third or 34.4 percent of worldwide sales of exported oranges during 2020.
From a continental perspective, buyers located in European countries bought the most imported oranges in 2020 with purchases costing 3.5 billion dollars or 58.8 percent of the global total. In second place were Asian importers at 31.3 percent trailed by those in North America at 7.3 percent.
Smaller percentages were delivered to Latin America at 1.3 percent excluding Mexico but including the Caribbean, Oceania at 0.7 percent led by Australia and New Zealand, then Africa at 0.6 percent.
Below are the 15 countries that paid the most for imported oranges during 2020.
Germany: spent 501.6 million dollars to import oranges which account for 8.3 percent of total imported oranges. France splashed 493.2 million dollars on orange importation accounting for 8.2 percent, the Netherlands imported oranges worth 457.1 million dollars equivalent to 7.6 percent while Orange importation in China gulped 307.93 million dollars valued at 5.1 percent of total global orange importation while Russia imported 307.89 million dollars worth of oranges. Other top importers include:
Hong Kong, United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, United States, Canada, Italy, South Korea, Spain, Portugal, and Bangladesh.
Among the above countries, the fastest-growing markets for oranges since 2020 were: Portugal which was up by 95.6 percent, Spain which was up by 62.3 percent, Bangladesh which was up by 59.6 percent, and Italy up by 50.8 percent.
Three was a trio of declining top import countries specifically China which was down by minus 22.8 percent, Hong Kong down by minus 12.7 percent, and South Korea down by minus 8.3 percent.
By value, the listed 15 countries purchased 68.2 percent of all oranges imported in 2020.
Oranges Exports by Country
Global sales for oranges exports from all countries totaled 5.4 billion dollars in 2020. Overall, the value of exported oranges increased by an average of 17.2 percent for all suppliers since 2016 when shipments of oranges were worth 4.6 billion dollars.
From 2019 to 2020, the value of globally exported oranges accelerated by 13.9 percent.
The 5 biggest exporters of oranges in 2020 are Spain, South Africa, Egypt, the United States, and the Netherlands generated 70.4 percent of the total value of oranges exported worldwide.
Among continents, European countries sold the highest dollar value worth of exported oranges during 2020 with shipments worth 2.4 billion dollars or 44.8 percent of total exported oranges. In second place were African exporters at 28.7 percent while 11 percent of worldwide shipments originated from North America. Asia supplied 8.4 percent worth of oranges.
Smaller percentages came from Oceania with 4 percent mostly from Australia but also New Zealand, and Latin America exported 3.2 percent excluding Mexico but including the Caribbean.
Below are the 15 countries that sold the highest dollar value worth of oranges on international markets during 2020.
Spain sold 1.4 billion dollars worth of oranges which accounts for 26.7 percent of total exported oranges followed by South Africa which sold 797.9 million dollars of oranges accounting for 14.7 percent of total global orange export. Egypt is next with 648.6 million dollars which accounts for 12 percent. United States’ orange export is valued at 574 million dollars valued at 10.6 percent while the Netherlands is next with 346.3 million with 6.4 percent. Other top exporters include Australia with 214.5 million dollars, Greece with 186.7 million dollars, Portugal with 144.7 million dollars, Turkey with 132.8 million dollars, Italy with 123.6 million dollars, China with 110.2 million dollars, Hong Kong with 108.9 million dollars, Morocco with 89.5 million dollars, Chile with 80.2 million dollars, India with 53.4 million dollars.
By value, the listed 15 countries shipped 93.4 percent of global oranges exported in 2020.
Among the top exporters, the fastest-growing oranges exporters since 2019 were: India which was up by 161.9 percent, Portugal up by 75.6 percent, Greece up by 48.2 percent, and Turkey up by 44.3 percent.
Three among those countries posted declines in their sales of exported oranges, namely Hong Kong which was down by minus 23.5 percent, Australia which was down by minus 3.2 percent, and Egypt which was down by down minus 1.2 percent.
As of 1987, orange trees were found to be the most cultivated fruit tree in the world. Orange trees are widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates for their sweet fruit. The fruit of the orange tree can be eaten fresh or processed for its juice or fragrant peel. As of 2012, sweet oranges accounted for approximately 70 percent of citrus production.
In 2019, 79 million tonnes of oranges were grown worldwide, with Brazil producing 22 percent of the total, followed by China and India.
The global orange market is projected to register a CAGR of 3.0 percent during the forecast period of 2021 to 2026. Due to COVID 19, there has been a labor shortage in the agriculture industry due to movement restrictions which posed a challenge in harvesting the oranges. Additionally, the supply chain disruption has also had a negative impact on the orange trade globally.
High production capabilities and magnificent weather conditions across the globe contribute to the production of oranges. The production of oranges is majorly affected by several factors, such as environmental factors, bio stress, and government policies of the country. Spain is one of the major producers of citrus fruits, especially oranges. However, a rebound in citrus production in the European countries may result in a reduction in imports from Spain.
The other important varieties of orange found are lane late from Australia, Navelate from Spain, and Newhall from California. The international trade in oranges mainly revolves around major exporters, such as Brazil and other countries in the European Union, which represents almost 60.0 percent of the entire international trade of oranges. Some of the top importers are China, the United States, and Turkey.
The demand for oranges is at its peak during the months of November, December, and January when the temperatures are a little lower. The growth in the European market is retained, especially in Germany, where the consumption of oranges has seen the strongest growth in recent years. Consumers in different regions including North America and Europe are shifting their preferences towards orange juice. However, the per capita consumption of fresh oranges has been constantly ameliorating, particularly during the winter seasons, owing to their high availability.
According to UN Comtrade, the exports of oranges to the world increased significantly from 4,620.8 million in 2016 to 4,753.9 million in 2019, owing to the escalating consumption during winter months, which varies for different countries. Moreover, as the seasonal consumption varies, the navel which is an orange variety has its season lasting from June to October, Chile saw increased citrus exports, including oranges, by 15.0 percent. This was due to heavy rainfall recorded in 2018, which led to larger harvests and served the markets in the united states and Europe. Thus, the higher availability and production of fresh oranges, owing to the adequate weather conditions is stimulating the seasonal consumption of oranges.
Brazil is a key driver in the global orange demand trend as domestic consumption of fresh oranges is growing, as consumers demand fresh squeezed orange juice in their homes, bakeries, and restaurants are growing throughout the nation, they also look for pasteurized juice, which is produced at factories that operate in the country. The domestic market for fresh oranges has become a major consumer of Brazil’s total orange production. More than 100.0 million boxes of oranges, each weighing 40.8 kilograms, which is equivalent to approximately 30.0 percent of Brazil’s production are consumed by the Brazilian population annually. Major juice industries in Brazil used to export almost entire production to international destinations. Hence, the growing trend of juice shops with a variety of fruits, including orange extracts and pulp, in Brazil has led to the demand for fresh oranges consumption in the country.
Oranges contribute significantly to the bulk of the world’s citrus fruit production accounting for more than 50 percent of the global citrus production. Output and consumption of oranges have grown sharply over the past three decades at a compounded rate of 3.5 percent. Production and exportation of processed orange products have also increased by 4.4 percent over the same period because of the improvement in transportation and the low packaging cost. Of all the oranges produced worldwide, 20 percent of the total is sold as a whole fruit while the remainder is used in making extracts and juice. Oranges are also used as preservatives and spices in some of the coastal communities. Oranges are valued for vitamin C content. It is also a source of other nutrients including folacin, calcium, and potassium.
Orange is one of the top citrus fruit grown in most countries after banana and apple. The most common species of citrus are mandarins, sweet orange, and lime. There are many orange cultivars or varieties developed for each region. The varieties are mainly pest resistant and high yielding. Some of the most common types include center, Valencia, Blood Red, and Seedles 182. Oranges grow well in both tropical and subtropical climates. For maximum yield and best crop growth, dry conditions characterized by low rainfalls ranging between 75 and 250 centimeters are the most favorable conditions. High humidity and frost conditions are a perfect environment for the spread of diseases in orange crops while hot winds cause the plant to lose its flowers and young fruits. The orange crop grows well in a wide range of soil including the alluvial, sandy loam, and red sandy soil. However, soil properties like fertility, drainage, and PH concentration are important factors to be considered. Orange crops can either be irrigated in an orchard or rainfed in case of reliable rains.
Orange production and consumption have grown over the years. The current annual orange production is estimated at 50 million tons. The increase in orange production is mainly because of the larger cultivation area, efficient transport, and low packaging cost. However, the high production levels have significantly affected the rate of new planting with the demand for oranges rising more than its output, especially in the developed countries like the United States. Oranges are produced worldwide with 70 percent of the world’s orange production taking place in the Northern Hemisphere.
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Brazil is the leading orange producer in the world producing about 30 percent of the world’s output. Belize ranked the highest in orange and mandarine consumption per capita with 90.8 kg followed by Luxembourg and the Bahamas. China produced about 14.4 million tons of orange in 2013. Europeans bought the most imported oranges in 2020 with purchases costing 3.5 billion dollars or 58.8 percent of the global total. Asian importers spent 31.3 percent trailed by those in North America at 7.3% and Latin America at 1.3%. European countries sold the highest dollar value worth of exported oranges during 2020 with shipments worth 2.4 billion dollars or 44.8 percent of total exported oranges. African exporters at 28.7 percent were second place while 11 percent of worldwide shipments originated from North America. The global orange market is projected to register a CAGR of 3.0 percent during the forecast period of 2021 to 2026. The demand for oranges is at its peak during the months of November, December, and January when the temperatures are a little lower. Brazil is a key driver in the global orange demand trend as domestic consumption of fresh oranges is growing. More than 100.0 million boxes of oranges, each weighing 40.8 kilograms, are consumed by the Brazilian population annually. Oranges contribute significantly to the bulk of the world’s citrus fruit production. Oranges are one of the top citrus fruits grown in most countries after banana and apple. The most common species of citrus are mandarins, sweet orange, and lime. 70 percent of the world’s orange production takes place in the Northern Hemisphere. Orange crops can either be irrigated in an orchard or rainfed.
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